The International Conference on Functional Programming (ICFP) is likely the world’s premier forum on functional programming. Apart from the main track, several workshops on specific topics are held in the days preceding and following ICFP proper. Many language communities use these mini-conferences to meet in person and discuss issues of interest to their entire community (and drink beer).
The workshop of greatest interest to myself is the workshop on High-Performance Functional Programming, which I have attended most years since it debuted in 2012. FHPC has at times seemed to be in risk of fading away - only 5 papers were accepted in 2015, and not many more were submitted. However, this year’s FHPC seems to have reversed this unfortunate trend, with 9 papers accepted, and almost double that submitted. More importantly, I felt that the quality of the presented work was quite high. in fact, I felt I got more out of FHPC than the main FHPC track of presentations, although it is probably contributory that FHPC matches my own research interests exactly.
FHPC was scheduled at the same time as the Haskell symposium, which seems unfortunate, as I suspect there is significant overlap in potential audience. Most people seemed to think the same, and it is likely that FHPC will be moved to another time slot next year. Still, attendance was strong for a workshop, with a minimum of 20-30 people in the audience at most times, and the (small-ish) room entirely full at times - I don’t think I have ever seen that before.
For the rest of this most, I will try to give my impressions of the presentations I saw at FHPC. Unfortunately, I am writing this a few weeks after the workshop, so I may have forgotten a few points in the interim.
First up was Amos Robinson, who presented Icicle: write once, run once. This work is about writing streaming dataflow programs that are guaranteed to never manifest the entire input data in memory. I don’t think the point was to work on infinite streams, but rather to work on datasets of such magnitude that it is not feasible to perform multiple passes over them.
Next was Using fusion to enable late design decisions for pipelined computations, which presented a language embedded in Haskell for “programming pipelined computations”. It felt like a (very) high-level hardware description language, and is indeed also a continuation of the Obsidian/Feldspar line of research. Their language is built around stream transformers, with fusion used to remove the potential overheads of programming with many small transformers.
The next paper was Automatic generation of efficient codes from mathematical descriptions of stencil computation - a paper with 12 authors, easily beating the 8 on my own paper (although mine has a sillier title). In this work, a functional-style language is presented for writing stencil applications, with a compiler doing the usual stencil optimisations (time tiling) and generating efficient code for the Japanese K supercomputer. I found this work particularly interesting because the stencil language (with the hilarious name Formura) was developed in concert with actual scientists with actual simulation needs. Formura enables these scientists, who are not expert high-performance programmers, to easily translate their mathematical models to code and obtain great parallel performance. It seems that this time, that oft-repeated promise of functional programming has indeed borne fruit. Notably, the work is a finalist in the 2016 ACM Gordon Bell Prize.
In JIT Costing Adaptive Skeletons for Performance Portability, the authors present a JIT-based approach to performance portability that makes use of rewrite rules to, at runtime, transform the declaratively-specified parallelism. I must admit that I am sceptical of the rewrite-rule based approach - specifically, its ability to scale to more complicated cases. How would e.g. loop tiling be represented? However, the work targets irregular parallelism, which is certainly a tough nut to crack, and my hunch is that some kind of JIT approach may be the way to go. (I strongly prefer ahead-of-time compilers, so this is not easy for me to admit!)
The next presentation was by a fellow PhD student from DIKU - Martin Dybdal. The work he presented (Low-level functional GPU programming for parallel algorithms) was on a language called FCL, which is derived from Obsidian, but which, unlike Obsidian, is not embedded in Haskell, but is instead a conventional separate language with a compiler that generates OpenCL kernels. I think this is the right way to go - embedded languages can be convenient, but are hard to target for code generation, and are usually complicated to use, as they have to embed their type rules in the type system of the host. Haskell has a type system powerful enough to embed most properties you want, but the ergonomics, particularly with respect to type errors, can be very lacking.
I was up next, and presented APL on GPUs: a TAIL from the past, scribbled in Futhark. This paper was the extension of a student project where we compile TAIL (a kind of statically typed intermediate language for APL) to Futhark (the high-performance data-parallel language I work on during my PhD). Pretty amusing work - APL is of course great fun, and it is very satisfying to get crazy factor-1000x speedups without that much effort (because the optimising compiler is already written). While I felt my presentation was much more raw than others at the workshop, I think people got a good impression of what we have done, and were amused by my ribbing on some of the more silly aspects of APL. I had a good discussion with several people afterwards - even Simon Peyton Jones himself had some interesting suggestions as to why array languages don’t seem to be that popular anymore. Well, let’s see if we can change that by making them go really fast.
The next paper was by yet another DIKU colleague, Frederik Meisner Madsen: Streaming nested data parallelism on multicores. Frederik has been working on a extension of the classic NESL language where streaming properties is visible in the type system. Yes, it’s another streaming paper at FHPC - guess I know what to write about for next year. What I like most about this work (apart from the robust multicore performance) is that it is very principled - the compiler is not just some black box, but has a fairly understandable compilation model (flattening). Of course, flattening can easily make a mess of some programs, especially as pertains to memory traffic, but it is at least predictable.
For the last two presentations I was rather exhausted (and perhaps even a bit starstruck after my conversation with SPJ). Ben Lippmeier presented Polarized data parallel data flow, a type system approach to ensuring that streaming(!) programs can run in constant space. The final presentation was s6raph: vertex-centric graph processing framework with functional interface, but unfortunately I was by then too tired to remember much.
In summary, this was by a significant margin the best FHPC I have ever attended. In fact, this year I even found it better than the “competing” PLDI workshop ARRAY. I hope to attend both ICFP and FHPC next year, when it will be held in Oxford.