Since the release announcement for Futhark 0.16.1, we have released three versions for which we did not write a blog post. This is because the changes they contained were mostly bug fixes, small optimisations, and various other small additions. We consider this a good sign. We would like Futhark to be a fairly stable language that quietly improves behind the scenes, without users having to be made aware of the details. However, in the near future, we plan to change the language such that almost every Futhark program must be updated, and the just released version 0.17.2 (full changelog) more or less just prepares the ground. (The version is 0.17.2 and not 0.17.1 because I initially messed up the release process.)
So what are we changing? Some time ago I wrote a blog post on four
design flaws in Futhark.
Since then, we have addressed one of the flaws (1-indexing of tuples),
and are now ready to have a go at the big one: changing the type of
array sizes from
i64. Specifically, the next major
release of Futhark (0.18.1) will change all array sizes in Futhark to
be of type
i64. For reasons described in the previously linked
post, this is not just an implementation detail. It is in fact a
fundamental language property, and changing it will break user code.
To bring some numbers into the picture, about 400 of our 1500 test
programs had to be modified. Most test programs are however tiny, and
a better case study is our benchmark suite, where almost
every benchmark out of about 90 had to be modified. In fact, even
the example program on the front page of this very website will have
let average (xs: f64) = reduce (+) 0.0 xs / r64 (length xs)
r64 function converts a 32-bit integer to a 64-bit float, so
changing the type of
length to return a 64-bit integer will
require us to use a different conversion function (
Futhark programs are full of such cases. Fortunately, the changes are
mostly mechanical (although not enough to automate) and
straightforward to do. Still, we am well aware that this change will
be painful to Futhark programmers, but this is a change that simply
cannot be put off forever, and the longer we wait, the more painful it
That was a lot of words about something that isn’t even part of the release this post is ostensibly about. So what did we incompatibly change for 0.17.2? Fairly little:
- The integer modules no longer contain
replicatefunctions. These were essentially-unused functions that made it possible to easily create integer arrays with nonstandard element types. Since the addition of size types, these had dubious utility as they were unable to properly express their return size, and they were unused in real programs anyway. Since these definitions were the only difference between the
sizemodule types, the latter has been removed entirely.
- Range expressions, like
0..<n, no longer permit unsigned integers. The reasoning for this is a bit subtle, but comes down to unsigned integers usually resulting in zero extension operations in the generated code. Futhark, like LLVM, in practice considers all integers signed in its (internal) type system, which creates the problem that zero-extension can turn a “negative” number positive. Zero-extension can therefore raises uncomfortable questions when doing various optimisations, some of which are needed to lessen the performance impact of 64-bit sizes. Rather than worrying about this, it seemed prudent to simply restrict the type system. And again, nobody used unsigned ranges outside the compiler test suite.
The intent is to smoothen out the incompatible changes over two releases, to lessen the shock. In retrospect, removing a bunch of features that nobody used is not really going to soften the impact of changing such a fundamental thing as the type of sizes, but oh well. Anyway, that’s 0.17.2.